18 January – armed tender, HMS Supply arrives at Botany Bay just ahead of the First Fleet (Alexander, Friendship, Scarborough) the following day.

26 January – Captain Arthur Phillip RN, raised the British flag at Sydney Cove to cliam New South Wales as a British Colony (not a nation) beginning a long and brutal colonisation of people and land.

May – Conflict The first conflict between the First Fleet arrivals and Aboriginal people takes place near Rushcutters Bay, Sydney. Two convicts are killed.

December – Arabanoo is the first Aboriginal person captured by Europeans.